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在美国英国上大学50个必记的拉丁词汇  发贴心情 Post By:2015-05-25 09:14:58


While there may not be cities and countries full of people speaking Latin thesedays, that doesn't mean the ancient language is something you can just forgetabout. Not only are many of our words in English (not to mention many otherlanguages) derived from Latin, but many of its words words are still used intoday's daily speaking and writing. So while you may not need to learn to speakor read the Latin language fluently, it can still be a big help in your questfor higher education to know a few words and phrases. Here are some of the mostcommonly used Latin expressions that you should learn to start improving yourpersonal lexicon.


Must-Learn Terms
If you don't know these Latin terms, get to learning them ASAP, as they arecommonly used in speaking and writing and may be hard to avoid.


Per se: (就其本身而言The direct translation of this term is "byitself" and it means just that when used in English as well. You could useit to say that you don't find chemistry boring per se (by itself,intrinsically), but this professor's voice puts you to sleep. 例如:就化学本身而言我并不讨厌它,可是教授上课的声音总是让我想打瞌睡。

Vice versa: (反之亦然)From the Latin meaning"to change" or "turn around," this term means to reversethe order of something . This quote from Samuel Butler provides an example,"In the midst of vice we are in virtue, and vice versa."

Alma mater: (母校尤指大学)If you don't know this term already, you'llbecome quite familiar with it once you graduate from college. The literaltranslation is "dear/bountiful mother" but you'll find it used ineveryday language to denote the college or university from which one hasgraduated.

Magnum opus(大师之作/绝好的艺术作品): Whether it's in writing,painting, sculpture or music, this Latin term denotes the greatest work done byan artist-- a true masterpiece.

Bona fide(在法律术语中指良好的意图/一般表示真诚的和善意的): While it's literal translationmeans "good faith" this term has a few different shades of meaning inmodern language. In legal terms, it is used to represent something that ispresented without deception or fraud, or literally in good faith, honest,sincere and lawful. It is more commonly used to mean something that's the realdeal or truly authentic.

Quasi(类似的,有如): In Latin, this wordmeans as if or as though and in English it is used as both an adjective in itsown right and as a part of a compound word. It simply designates something thatresembles something else but doesn't quite have all the same features.

Alter ego(密友,或者个性的另一面): Cicero coined thisterm, most likely taken from the Greek, to mean "a second self" or"another I" and its modern meaning hasn't changed much today. Manypeople have an alter ego, or another, perhaps hidden aspect of themselves. Oneexample from popular culture is Beyonce's alter ego, Sasha Fierce.

Verbatim(逐字逐句的/地): If you repeat something verbatim you repeat itin exactly the same words, word for word with no changes and no improvisation.

Status quo(现状): From the Latinmeaning "the state in which" this term is used today to designate theexisting state or condition of things. For example, if you're making money offof a high pollution industry it is to your interests to maintain the status quowhen it comes to environmental law.

Writing 写作的时候常用到的拉丁文

Knowing just what these terms and words mean can be a big help in improvingyour reading comprehension.

Sic(这个是指原作品中出现了错误,编辑在此指出): Found in writing, thisLatin word most commonly finds a home in brackets (like this: [sic]) whenquoting a statement or writing. It indicates that there is a spelling orgrammar error (or just something out of the ordinary) in the original quotationand that the publication has only reproduced it faithfully, not made an errorof their own.

Id est(缩写是i.e.,通常在作者想要给出具体的例子和解释的时候): You've likely seen this termin writing before, even if you weren't aware as it is commonly abbreviated toi.e. In Latin, it means "that is" and is used in English when thespeaker or writer wants to give an example or explanation that specifies astatement.

Deus ex machina(解围的人或事件): In directtranslation, this term means, "God out of a machine" and it harkensback ancient Greek and Roman plays. When the plot would become too tangled orconfusing, the writers would simply bring in God, lowered in via a pulleysystem (the machine) and he would wrap it all up. Today, it's still used inliterature to describe a plot where an artificial or improbable means ofresolving a conflict is used.

Exempli gratia(缩写是e.g.,这通常会用在例子前面,for the sake of example: You'll often see this term abbreviated to e.g. inwriting. It means "for the sake of example" and when it see it in asentence you can expect that is will be followed by some examples.

Et cetera(缩写是etc. 意思是and the others还有其他的): Few out there aren't familiar with this termbut may not know it as well when it's spelled out like this and not abbreviatedas etc. Meaning "and the others" it is used to denote that a list ofthings could continue ad infinitum (see below for definition) and that for thesake of brevity it's better to just wrap things up with a simple etc.

Ex libris(专指书籍...图书馆来): Back in the dayswhen books were rarer and more expensive commodities than they were today, itwas common to mark your books with a label bearing your own name and thisphrase which means "from the library of." While not as common today,some true bibliophiles still use the labels.

Ibidem(缩写是ibid,常被用在文献页,指同一个资料来源被引用了两次): Another abbreviated term, thisword is more commonly seen in research writing in the form of "ibid."From the Latin for "in the same place" it is found in footnotes andbibliographies to designate that the same source has been cited twice insuccession.

Et alii(缩写是et al, 通常用在一本合著的书的某一个作者名字之后以省略罗列其他的作者名字): You're unlikely toencounter this Latin phrase in its unabbreviated form, and will most likelyonly ever see it as et al when included. This is also a term that is found infootnotes and bibliographies which allows writers to refer to a large number ofauthors without having to write each name out (for example, you could say thatyour source is Dr. Henry Jones et al.)

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  发贴心情 Post By:2015-05-25 09:15:34

Everyday Talk 日常生活中常用到的拉丁语

You've likely heard these words and phrases on the news or in conversations,and if you didn't know what they meant then, these definitions will help makeit clear now.


Ad infinitumto infinity 无止尽的): You might be able to guess what this phrasemeans simply through its similarity to the word we use in English. It means"to infinity" and can be used to describe something that goes on,seemingly or actually endlessly, as some students might feel about certainclasses.

De facto(事实上): In Latin, de factomeans "from the fact" and in use in English it is often used todistinguish was is supposed to be the case from what is actually the reality.For example, legally, employers are not allowed to discriminate in hiringbecause of age, but many still practice de facto (in reality, in fact)discrimination.

In totoin total, 总的来说/整体上): No, this phrasedoesn't mean that the cute little dog from

The Wizard of Oz ate something, it means in all or entirely. Think ofit as saying "in total" in a really weird voice.

Ipso facto(本质上/事实证明): Meaning "by the fact itself" thiscommonly used and misused term is denotes when something is true by its very nature.For example, if you don't feed your dog you are ipso facto a bad owner.

Tabula rasa(纯洁质朴天真的状态): When you were achild, your mind might have been more of a tabula rasa than it is today. ThisLatin phrase means "clean slate" and denotes something or someone notaffected by experiences and impressions.

Terra firma(坚实的陆地): Those who hate tofly or get seriously seasick will be able to put this term to good use. Itmeans firm ground, and you might be thanking your lucky stars to be back on itafter a trip through the air or rough waters.

Mea culpa(是我的错): If you want toadmit your own guilt or wrongdoing in a situation, use this Latin phrase thattranslates literally to "my fault." It's a bit like a fancier, lessoutdated way of saying "my bad."

Persona non grata(不受欢迎的人): From the Latinmeaning an "unacceptable person" this term designates someone who'sno longer welcome in a social or business situation.

In situ(现场,就地): If somethinghappens in situ it happens in place or on site, though the term oftendesignates something that exists in an original or natural state. Like a rarespecies sighted in situ or an invaluable artifact found on an archeologicalsite.

In vitro(在试管内): Most students willbe familiar with this term because of modern fertility treatments, but have youever considered what the term actually means? In Latin, in vitro means "inglass" and any biological process that occurs in the laboratory ratherthan in the body or a natural setting can be called in vitro.

In vivo(在活体内): While an experimenttaking place in a glass test tube might not cause a stir, many are up in armsabout this kind of experimentation. In vivo means "within the living"and the two most common examples of this kind of experimentation are animaltesting and clinical trials.

Ante bellum(战前,尤指美国南北战争): During your historycourses, you're bound to encounter this term. It means in the most basic sense"before the war" and while it can be applied to any war it is mostcommonly used to refer to the American Civil War and the Antebellum Era thepreceded it.

Arguments and Logic 做逻辑和争论
Representing arguments as old as philosophy itself and the terms associatedwith them, these terms are good to know for a well-rounded education.

A priori: You might come across this term in classes about logicor reasoning. It means taking a general law or idea and applying it to aparticular instance without needing experimentation or observation. An exampleof an a priori statement that is used is, "all bachelors are single."You do not need to observe this to see that it is true because, by definition,bachelors must be single.

A posteriori: A posteriori arguments are different than a prioribecause they are based on actual observation or experimentation. Continuing onthe previous example, an a posteriori example of reasoning might be that"some bachelors are happy." This can be based on real lifeobservation isn't a given based on what a bachelor is.

Ad nauseam: This Latin term is used to describe an argument thathas been taking place to the point of nausea, often with the same argumentsbeing rehashed over and over for years until everyone, except a select few, aresimply sick to death of the whole thing.

Ergo: Simply put, ergo means therefore and you can exchange it with thereforeor hence in any sentence and maintain the same meaning. For example, you couldsay, "I think, ergo I am" without changing the meaning of theoriginal.

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  发贴心情 Post By:2015-05-25 09:17:34


Legal Language
One place where Latin words are very commonly used is in the courtroom. Learnsome of these basic legal words to help you better understand Law and Orderand how the legal process works.

Compis mentis: Meaning "in command of one's mind" this termis used in the legal field to denote someone who is competent to stand trialand not encumbered by mental illness or handicap.

Subpoena: If you've ever watched a legal drama on TV, you'vemore than likely heard this term thrown around but perhaps haven't given muchthought as to what it really means. The word subpoena comes from the Latinmeaning "under penalty" and if someone delivers a subpoena to youhave to respond or they'll be some big penalties under the law.

Ad hominem: In court, or outside of it for that matter, this termis used to designate an argument that attacks someone's character rather thanaddressing a question or issue at hand. By attacking character, these argumentsappeal to emotions and prejudices rather than reason or logic.

Habeas corpus: A writ of habeas corpus (literally, have the body)requires a person to appear before the court in person, generally to ascertainwhether or not the detention of that person is lawful. Habeas corpus cannot besuspended unless there is reason to believe that a person could pose a dangerto the public.

Pro bono: Pro bono means "for the good" and it's aterm used to designate when something is done free of charge. While the termcan be applied in any field, it is most commonly used to describe legalservices.

Mens rea: There is a big difference between murder andmanslaughter, and mens rea is what separates the two. Mens rea means"guilty mind," and those who go into a crime intending to commit ithave it, differing from those who commit a crime accidentally or withoutadvance planning.

It's always good to know the language of business, especially in such acompetitive market. No matter what field you enter, you're bound to hear thesewords at some point in your career.

Ad hoc: From the Latin meaning "to this," this term gained popularityin the mid-1600s and it still used today. It refers to something that is formedor done quickly to meets the needs of a particular problem or issue withoutregard to a more general application and generally lacking advance planning.

Per diem: Meaning "by the day" a per diem in most usestoday designates a daily allowance used in traveling for work. It can also meana per-day rate or that someone is paid on a daily basis. Other common similarterms are per annum (by the year) and per capita (by the person.)

Curriculum vitae: A curriculum vitae is basically a fancy way todescribe a resume. While it means literally "the course of one'slife" the terms is applied to mean a short list of your accomplishmentsand training-- something any grad will need to think about putting togethersoon.

Pro rata: This Latin phrase is something you're likely familiarwith in everyday life. It means to charge at a proportional rate. So if aservice is $100 for 10 hours, then one would cost $10 pro rata.

Quid pro quo:

While Anthony Hopkins so sinisterly used this phrase in

The Silence of the Lambs, in everyday life it's often used to describean exchange of value necessary for a contract to take place. From the Latinmeaning "this for that," it gets used in everywhere from thecourtroom to the bedroom in modern English.

Quotes and Sayings
These quotes and sayings in Latin get tossed around, put on bumper stickers andrepeated in conversations so they're well-worth knowing.

Carpe diem: This well-known phrase comes from a poem by Horace.While there have been arguments about the exact translation, it is mostcommonly held to mean "seize the day" encouraging individuals to livelife to the fullest today without expectation of a tomorrow.

Cogito ergo sum: Translated from the Latin, the quote means "Ithink, therefore I am" and comes from the writing of philosopher ReneDescartes.

Veni, vidi, vici: These famous words were purported uttered by Romanemperor Julius Caesar after a short war with Pharnaces II of Pontus.Translated, it means "I came, I saw, I conquered" an adage you canhopefully keep in mind come finals time.

In vino veritas: If you're old enough to drink or have been aroundothers who have imbibed, you're more than likely already familiar with thewisdom behind this quote from Pliny the Elder meaning, "in wine there isthe truth." It is often followed up with "in aqua sanitas" or"in water there is health"-- something all college students shouldremember.

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  发贴心情 Post By:2015-05-25 09:17:54


E pluribus unum: Simply take a look at American currency to see thisLatin phrase in use. It means "out of many, one" and is found onanything bearing the seal of the United States.

Et tu, Brute?: These are the famous last words of Julius Caesar afterhe is murdered by his friend Marcus Brutus in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Theymean "Even you, Brutus?" and are used poetically today to designateany form of the utmost betrayal.

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